Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Overview of Services
  3. Process Flow
  4. Trips and Places Processes
    1. Looking Up Places
    2. Getting and Browsing Trips
  5. Offers
    1. Getting and Browsing Offers
    2. Round Trip Handling
    3. Reservation
  6. Complex Example
  7. Booking Processes
    1. Creating a Booking Based on Offers
    2. Additional information in provisional booking
    3. Handling Partial Success of Pre-Booking
    4. Completing Booking for Confirmation and Fulfillment
    5. Cancel a Not Confirmed Booking
    6. Payment information and Payment Vouchers
    7. Interlude: Requested Information per Process Step
    8. Add parts to a booking
  8. After Sales Processes
    1. Refund
    2. Release a Booking
    3. Partial Refund
    4. Cancel Fulfillment
    5. Exchange
    6. Complaints
    7. Reimbursement


This page shows a representation of the data models underlying the API specifications. It is therefore not a strict representation of the resources themselves (those are self-represented in the OpenAPI specifications.)

The main purpose of this document is therefore to help a quicker understanding of the API and its underlying concepts. As such, some of the details of how the information is structured in the API are not represented or simplified in the data models.

Overview of Services

Resources Description
/places Resources to search for places
/trips Resources to search for trips
/offers Resources to get bookable offers
/availabilities resources to retrieve availability information on places (seats,..)
/bookings Resources to manipulate bookings
/bookings/{bookingId}/passengers/ Resources to change passengers
/bookings/{bookingId}/purchaser/ Resources to change purchaser
/bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers/ resources to change pre-booked bookings, e.g. provide place selections
/bookings/{bookingId}/reimbursements resources to reimburse unused tickets
/bookings/{bookingId}/release-offers resources to release tickets
/bookings/{bookingId}/cancel-fulfillments-offers resources to cancel fulfillments
/products retrieve products information on one or more products
/bookings/{bookingId}/fulfillments retrieve fulfillments, e.g. tickets
/fulfillments confirm a booking and retrieve fulfillments
/bookings/{bookingId}/refund-offers Resources to get and accept a refund offer
/bookings/{bookingId}/exchange-operations Resources to get and accept a exchange offer
/bookings/{bookingId}/exchange-offers dito
/bookings/{bookingId}/release-offers Resources to get, accept or delete a release offer
/bookings/{bookingId}/cancel-fulfillment-offers Resources to get, accept or delete a cancelFulfillment offer
/complaints resources to create and manipulate complaints
/coach-layouts Returns all coach layouts.
/reduction-cards retrieve reduction card types
/products retrieve product information
/zones retrieve zone information

Process Flow

Process Flow

The process flow starts with getting offers which can be chosen by the customer. Once selected they can be pre-booked and after the payment process (which is outside of the scope of this document) they can be booked. The fulfillment of the booking can either be on paper or paperless.

If needed bookings can either be refunded or exchanged by providing the customer with a refund or exchange offer which can then be booked by the customer.

Trips and Places Processes

Looking Up Places

Looking Up Places

The \places Lookup can be used by an API provider in order to search for places. Two typical uses cases would be

  • getting a set of places (in full or as reference) from a substring of the name
  • getting full details on a location based on one of its codes

Note that the functionality is not intended to trigger a “dump” of the complete places list or to build a full “browsing” functionality, hence the lack of pagination features here.

Given the high stability of this information, places are given a long time to live and get responses can be cached for a long period, so these operations should not be too costly in terms of calls or bandwidth.

Error Handling

Error handling by the Retailer remains basic here as a handful of cases have to be handled:

  • invalid characters in the search string
  • no result found for the given criteria.
  • The search did not return any result
  • unknown error on server side

In all cases, the error handling starts and stops with the Retailer returning the appropriate JSON Problem element.

In case the error can apply to multiple fields, it is recommended to provide additional details such as the incriminated field in the detail property of the Problem element.

Getting and Browsing Trips

Getting and Browsing Trips

If the API consumer only needs a schedule, and no bookable offer, it has the possibility to create a trips collection using POST /trip-collection. If the query is successful, the initial response to this will be a set of trips matching the provided search criteria.

Please refer to the Yaml specifications for the list of search criteria available. Depending on their respective journey planner capabilities, it could be that some criteria cannot be supported by one or the other distributor In this case it is up to the implementing party to clearly document those limitations together with the publishing of its endpoints. In all cases, at least origin, destination and travelDateTime must be supported

Based on an initially returned trips collection, it is then possible to retrieve earlier or later trips using GET the trip-collection by specifying the appropriate scrolling-tokens. As with all cases where nested resources can be returned, individually or in list, the embed feature allows specifying whether complete trips should be returned or only a title and a link. A GET verb without any scrolling-token will simply return the last set of trips return.

It is important to ensure that once a trip has been generated, its id can be re-used in possible subsequent operations within a reasonable time-frame:

  • When scrolling back and forth over time, a same trip should maintain the same id, so the API consumer can, if desired, expand the set of trips in its own context and have the guarantee that one same trip (in terms of content) will remain with the same id (in terms of resource id).
  • It could be used in a subsequent offer request, so that offers are now built for that specific trip

Error Handling

Since requesting trips still does not involve any transactional operation, the error handling is also limited to returning a JSON problem element. The following cases are to be considered:

  • A search criteria value contains invalid value or invalid characters
  • A search criteria lies outside accepted boundaries: it could be the date in the past, or too far in the future, or value outside bounds for the max number of changes
  • The origin or destination is not known
  • The search did not return any result
  • Unknown error on server side

In case the error can apply to multiple fields, it is recommended to provide additional details such as the incriminated field in the detail property of the Problem element.


Getting and Browsing Offers

Getting and Browsing Offers

Requesting and browsing offers works a lot like the trips: the API consumer submits search criteria, and a collection of “trip offers” is returned. This collection can be browsed to earlier and later trips the same way as the trips collections.

The search criteria for offers extend the search criteria available for trips with additional criteria applicable to the fares and products that can be returned such as the fare flexibility, the service class or the currency the offers should be proposed in.

Although the trip-related search criteria are present and will likely be the easiest and most used option, there is an alternative way to search offers if a set of specific trips is already known: provide the complete trip structure for one or several trips. This the only way to go for a request to a fare provider working according to fare rules. The trips provided may be larger than the part for which fares are requested. For this reason, the requested section must then be provided so that the provider knows which portion to work on. When this method is used, the API consumer can provide a “tripkey” together with the trip specification, which will be echoed in the tripoffer element matching that specific trip, for an explicit reconciliation between requested trips and provided offers.

An offer request to an distributor or fare provider can lead to offers with multiple OfferParts, potentially coming from different sub-providers (OSDM compliant or not). However, in preparing offers with multiple offer parts for the API consumer, the Retailer must follow the following rules:

  • While the combination logic on fares is left to the Distributor, it is recommended to only build and retain offers that are homogeneous (as much as possible) in terms of flexibility and comfort.
  • As with the trips, it must remain possible to scroll forward or backwards over offers.

As described further on, any additional information required for the provisional booking can be provided in the booking operation itself

The resources used at offer steps optionally offer various levels of embedding (returning complete structure is the only mechanism mandatory to be implemented) and multiple granularity for the retrieval of information, so each implementing party can fine-tune the queries in order to get all the information needed for the processing at hand, and only that information.

Offer Messages

During the offer construction, the distributor or fare provider can encounter events that, while not halting the process or constituting an error, may be relevant for handling of the response by the API consumer. These events can then be passed on using the offer Message element. The following events are identified and relevant to this section

  • Overbooking
  • Schedule correction applied

Round Trip Handling

We define a round trip as a mirrored couple of trips (A-B B-A), each made of one or more segments.

The construction of a round trip is always a two-step process, where the outward offers are requested separately from the inward offers.

Receiving offers with return products and fares

In order to indicate to the provider that the intention is to build a return trip, the returnSearchParameters are used:

When requesting offers for the outward travel, the API consumer has to provide a return date. The response will contain a set of offers. Each of these offers will have a tag. Usage of it is described further below.

To get offer for the inward travel, the API consumer will have to provide:

  • The id of the outward tripCollectionId (allows knowing the context in which the outward offers are made)

  • Depending on the targeted fare provider, the offerTag for the selected outward offer, or the set of potential offers (as the offerTag does not have to be unique. E.g. all offers for a given date might have the same if the constraint is only on date) can or must be provided. Whether the offerTag is mandatory in the inward offer request is indicated by the “mandatory flag” that is provided in the outward offer response next to each offerTag. If the tag is provided in the inward offer request, the provider should then only return offers that are compatible with the indicated (set of) outward offers.
    Note that depending on whether the offerTag is mandatory or not and whether it is unique per outward offer, it may or may not be mandatory to select the outward offer before the inward offer request can be constructed.

Using returnTags

Besides the offerTag discussed above, some offers may have one or more returnTag(s) as well. As the name suggests, these can be used in order to determine how to combine offers in a return trip.

The idea is actually fairly simple: in case no filtering is applied on the inward offers using the offerTag filter mentioned above, the returned inward offers may not all be compatible with all outward offers. Compatible pairs are simply identified by the fact that they have the same (set of) returnTag(s). Offers with no return returnTag have no constraints.

Hereunder an example illustrating this concept:

Outward Offers
  • Offer1: -
  • Offer2: #123
  • Offer3: #234, #123
  • Offer4: -
Inward Offers
  • Offer5: -
  • Offer6: #123
  • Offer7: #345
  • Offer8: #123, #234
Valid Combinations
  • Offer1 + Offer5 (no constraint on Tags)
  • Offer4 + Offer5
  • Offer2 + Offer6
  • Offer3 + Offer8

Offer7 cannot be combined with any offer on the outward set.

Products Covering Both Directions

While in most cases the two trips are materialized with distinct products/fares for the fare provider, there are fare providers still proposing unique products covering the outward as well as the return. In this case, the product element can be flagged as covering the mirrored segment as well. As for the offer construction process, the provider will simulate the two steps approach by using one of the following approach:

  • The same product covering both outward and return is proposed in the offers for the two directions

  • For one of the two directions, a dummy product is returned.

Regarding the price, it can either be placed in full on the offers in the two directions (but then the total price will be incorrect when looking at the complete return travel), or split in any way desired between the outward and the return.

Products Covering Both Directions

Error Handling

  • the referenced trip cannot be found
  • A search criteria value contains invalid value or invalid characters
  • A search criteria lies outside accepted boundaries: it could be the date in the past, or too far in the future, or value outside bounds for the max number of changes
  • The origin or destination is not known
  • The trip search did not return any result
  • No offer could be built for any of the discovered trips
  • Schedule mismatch between systems
  • Unknown error on server side


Reservation offers are part of the offer but the selection of places is an additionl intermediate step after the prebooking of offers. The selection of places can be made via a graphical display of available places or via the specifcation of customer requirements (at a table, at the window, etc..).

The basic flow is shown here:

Reservations on a pre-booked Booking

Reservations can aso be added to an already confirmed booking:

Adding Reservations on a confirmed booking

Place Availability of Offers for Reservation

Each reservation item may provide availability information in availablePlaces. The total number of places is specified when availability of accommodation sub type ANY_SEAT is presented, optionally with all possible place properties. Sum of all available places object does not build the total number, some of these availabilities might be subset of the total. The fare provider is free to provide either total capacity only, or detail on other accommodation types and sub types.

If availabilities are provided with the number of available places it is recommended to provide these for important combinations of place properties only and not for all possible combinations.

The availability can be requested on offer level or on booking level. The request parameter specify the context which can either be OFFER or BOOKING and the resource which is either a reservation RESERVATION or a fare of type reservation (FARE).

  "availablePlaces": [
      "accommodationType": "SEAT",
      "accommodationSubType": "ANY_SEAT",
      "placeProperties": ["SILENCE", "WINDOW", "AISLE", "TABLE", "OPEN_SPACE"],
      "numericAvailability": 123,
      "tripLegCoverage": {
        "tripId": 1,
        "legId": 2
      "accommodationType": "SEAT",
      "accommodationSubType": "WITH_ANIMALS",
      "placeProperties": ["WITH_ANIMALS"],
      "numericAvailability": 5,
      "tripLegCoverage": {
        "tripId": 1,
        "legId": 2

Physical availability of places for reservation can be requested either by providing preferences on place properties or by requesting the available places for a graphical seat display to select individual seats. The request for seats to be displayed graphically can request the places for one or a selection of reservation offers. In case the request is for multiple reservation offers the client application must implement the switch of the offers based on selected places.

Partial Reservation

A provider might offer a reservation even in case the seat is not available on the whole leg. In this case the provider should include multiple reservation in the offer that will provide a reservation on a part of the leg.

A proprietary implementation is included in the specification where the split is indicated only in the reservation later on using the splitSection data in the ReservedPlace object. A provider is allowed to use the splitSection only in case the client has allowed this by sending a ProductTag SPLITT_RESERVATION in the offer request.

Fees on Seat Selection

Fees might be applied on selecting seats from a graphical map. For this purpose the amount of the fee can be provided per place in the place availability. With the selection of the specific seats a fee will be added to the booking which is linked to the reservation. The fee is indicated as for SEAT_SELECTION. The indication that graphical reservation is possible must also indicate that a fee will be taken. The element graphical Reservation must show the value WITH_FEE.

Getting Coach Layouts

Graphical seat reservation allows a customer to conveniently choose its preferred place. Therefore two resources are added: First, GET /coachLayouts to import all coach-layouts of an distributor or fare provider. This service can be used periodically as master data service . Second, GET /coachLayouts/{layoutId} returns the information for a given layoutId and can be used during the on-line offering and booking process.

A Complex Example Mixing Offers and Fares

Request From Front-end

I want to go from Rotterdam to Wien Stephansplatz via Antwerp.

Request Submitted to SNCB

Proposed trip by timetable system:

Origin - Destination Train Number
Rotterdam → Antwerp Thalys 9324 (mandatory reservation)
Antwerp → Liège IC 2345 + IR 5567
Liège → Frankfurt ICE 122 (mandatory reservation)
Frankfurt → Wien Hbf RailJet RJ 23 (optional reservation)
Wien Hbf → Wien Stephansplatz Metro

Fare Provider Resolution returns

Origin - Destination Train Number Fare Provider Consolidated
Rotterdam → Antwerp Thalys 9324 (mandatory reservation) PAO PAO
Antwerp → Liège IC 2345 + IR 5567 Fare SNCB Fare SNCB
Liège → Frankfurt ICE 122 (mandatory reservation) GUS GUS
Frankfurt → Wien Hbf RailJet RJ 23 (optional reservation) Frankfurt → Salzburg (Border) Fare DB
    Salzburg (Border) → Wien Hbf Fare ÖBB
    Frankfurt → Wien Hbf (reservation) Fare ÖBB
Wien Hbf → Wien Stephansplatz Metro Fare ÖBB  

Booking Processes

Creating a Booking Based on Offers

Creating a Booking Based on Offers

Once the offer has been selected, the API consumer can proceed to the booking of that offer. Along with the offer, optional or mandatory reservations or ancillaries can be booked as well. The optional offer parts can be easily identified in the offers as they will always be linked with an admission product (in admission.reservations or admission.ancillaries). The link contains the relationType property, which indicates whether the pointed reservation or ancillary is included (in which case it is not needed to explicitly add it in the booking request), mandatory (the reservation or ancillary must be added in the booking request) or optional (the reservation or ancillary may be added in the booking request).

Adding optional or mandatory elements is simply done by adding the respective offer part in the booking request (cf YAML specifications) POST /bookings.

It is also possible to book several offers in one operation to the same booking. This is especially relevant to support return trips, where in most times it will be mandatory. If this is the case, a collection of offer ids (and associated reservations and ancillaries) is given instead of just one. However, note that in this case the passengers party for all booked offers needs to be the same. To ensure this, the passenger reference of each member of the passenger party must remain the same from one offer to the other.

If the booking succeeds, a new booking resource is created. In this booking, the booked offers can be found and should look a lot like the offers as they were in the offer responses, with the exception that for reservations and fares, the reservedPlaces element will now be populated with the places that have actually be assigned to the passengers for this offer part.

Additional information in provisional booking step

In most cases the offer will not contain information on specific place properties for reservations. The reservation resource in the offer provides information on the availability of places with the selected offer:

  • Places with specific properties; please refer to the section Place Availability of Offers on the semantics of provided Place Availabilities.
  • Places nearby another place.
  • A graphical display of available places.

Graphical reservation

In some cases, additional information must be provided before or at the time of provisional booking in order to be taken into account, such as:

  • Additional passenger identity information;
  • Additional accommodation preferences regarding the accommodation, or its exact location.

While providing accommodation preferences is often optional, some information (usually on passengers) may be mandatory in order to proceed with the booking. The RequestedInformation property will provide the details of what needs to be specified in order to book a given offer. These details are provided under the form of a boolean expression, referring to the passenger model elements using dot notation (with the TripOffer as the root). For example, if it is required that last name and first name are set to proceedRequestedInformation would be :

passengerSpecifications[<uuid>].detail.firstName AND passengerSpecifiations[<uuid>].detail.lastName

The concept of leading passenger is also expressed using such requested information. Though the API doesn’t include boolean indicator which passenger is the leading one, the provider system will identify the first eligible one (based on age or other business rules) and request necessary information using the RequestedInformation pattern. Removing this passenger during partial refund or exchange may be impossible in the aftersale if none other passenger is eligible for this role, or system doesn’t support change of the leading passenger.

Another example, if on top of first and last names, at least one email or one phone number is needed:

(passengerSpecifiations[0].detail.firstName AND passengerSpecifications[0].detail.lastName AND (passengerSpecifications[0] OR passengerSpecifications[0]

By parsing this structure, the API consumer is able to identify the elements that need to be filled-in to proceed. The grammar for required information is defined there.

The two types of information (accommodation preferences and passenger data updates) are both to be added in the POST /bookings body:

  • passenger information can be specified in the passengers array: bookingRequest.passengerSpecifications
  • seating preferences can be provided in bookingRequest.selectedOffers[].placeSelections

Reusable offers

A reusable offer is an offer that can be booked several times, as long as there is sufficient availability, in distinct bookings and for different, but equivalent, sets of passengers from those of the initial offer request.

The new set is considered equivalent when composed of passengers with a similar profile (same reductions and birth date entitling to the same product(s)).

In case of:

  • booking a reusable offer for a new set of passengers, all passengers’ attributes need to be be fully specified in the POST /bookings body, except the id that is always generated by the server.
  • booking an offer, reusable or not, for the same set of passengers of the offer request, all properties are updatable except:
    • id
    • externalReference

Note however that updating a property can influence the eligible product in the offer (such as date of birth or reduction cards) may lead to the booking being rejected in case of incoherence.

It is the choice of the OSDM provider to declare offers as reusable, or not, in the reply to POST /offers. Reusable offers however should be favored whenever possible: while the OSDM provider retains control, it allows implementation of powerful business use-cases (e.g. a ticket machine at the station that could continue selling reusable offers while experiencing network issues and would then synchronize the sales upon connection re-establishement).

Reminder: the accommodation preferences can be found in the reservationOptions elements (offer.fare|integratedReservation|reservation.placeSelection.reservationOptions)

The passengers in the booking resources are also the same type of resources as the ones present in offers. However, they could be different resources, with different ids (the passengers references do remain unchanged).

Initially, a booking will have the status PREBOOKED (see also the booking status model).

Error Handling

  • The requested reservation option is not available on this transport
  • An invalid value is provided for a passenger property
  • Referenced offer or offer part not found (offer expired ?)
  • No rights to access referenced offer
  • Incompatible offer part with the offer
  • Missing information
  • Reservation to sub-system failed for one or more offer parts
  • Insufficient availability for one of the requested products
  • Requested place not available

Provisionally Booking a Return Trip

While this may not be true for all providers, most of them require that the outward and the return parts of a return trips are booked together in order to actually book a return-specific product. Therefore, when building a return travel, the API consumer should always specify the outward offer(s) and return offer(s) in the same POST /bookings operation.

Provisionally booking a trip with offers clusters

When booking for a trip for which several offer clusters were provided (see offer clusters)), the API consumer must be careful to always select one and only one offer from each offer cluster in the tripOffer. This ensures that even though the selection is done per offer cluster, the complete trip is covered exactly without any gap nor overlap. However, the provider implementers must verify and validate the set of offers selected is valid. if the trip being booked is also a return trip, then the rule applies for each direction.

Handling Partial Success of Pre-Booking

Handling Partial Success of Pre-Booking

As a Retailer, partial pre-booking is not expected. As a consequence all pre-booking operations are either fully successful or not executed at all.

However, a Distributor system may be configured in such ways that it is able to combine offers from different fare providers (via an OSDM-compliant API or not) and propose them in turn as one offer to its API to consumers, as one non dividable product or as a bundled pack.

Unfortunately, when the booking is attempted, the process may encounter errors leading to the booking failing with some of the sub-providers, while it will have succeeded for other parts of the offer, directed to other sub-providers. The result is a partially pre-booked booking. Since this situation is not compliant with the OSDM specifications, this situation needs to be rolled back. This can be done by cancelling the pre-bookings that were successful (on an OSDM sub-provider, it would be performed using the DELETE /booking/id verb). An appropriate error message is then returned in the booking response, under the form of a JSON problem element.

As it was the case with offers, during the booking process, some events may occur that are worth communicating to the API consumer, while they do not really constitute an error nor should interrupt the booking process. These events and situations can be communicated through the Warning messages:

  • Price change: the booking succeeded, but the price of the offer has been modified between the offer generation and its actual booking
  • Overbooking


  • Booking an offer will not book the reservations in the offer unless they have an “included” relationship with an admission of that offer. In order to add a non-included reservation to a booking, the reservation ids will have to be passed additionally or it will not be booked.
  • It is up to the OSDM API implementing party to decide whether booked offers can have the same resource ids as the offers in the shopping stage. However, it is assumed in the specifications that this is not the case, and the API Consumer should not rely on this possibility.
  • In case the passengers details are different in the different offers added together in a booking, the passenger information of the first offer will be copied in the booking, and those of the following offers will be ignored.

Completing Booking for Confirmation and Fulfillment

Completing Booking for Confirmation and Fulfillment

When the booking has been successfully created, some additional changes may be desired or even required before the booking can be confirmed.

  • As with offers, some passenger information may be required. If this is the case, the mechanism used is exactly the same as for offers: the requestedInformation property at booking level will indicate which information is needed to confirm using boolean expressions and dot notation. Updating the values is done via a PATCH on passenger sub-resources of the booking (as for the offer). Even if all the required data is already present, it could still be relevant to update these values. For example a dummy date of birth might, due to the selected fulfillment type now be requested to be the exact date and require an update, even though the property is already filled-in.

  • It may be needed or desired to change or set fulfillment type and options. It is however recommended to the Retailer implementers to set a default value for these properties (especially if only one value is possible). Note that the choice of the fulfillment type & options may impact the requestedInformation. This property should therefore be re-evaluated whenever the fulfillment type is modified (both on the provider and on the consumer side).


The modifications on the passenger’s properties will never impact the products in the offer (thus also not the price), even if this leads to an inconsistency between the offered product and the updated passenger property.

Error handling

  • An invalid value is provided for a passenger property
  • Attempted to modify a read-only property
  • The booking is confirmed/refunded/cancelled and does not allow modifications

Cancel a Not Confirmed Booking

Cancel a Not Confirmed Booking

In case a pre-booked booking is abandoned by its user, and this event is captured, it is recommended for the API consumer to properly cancel the booking on the Retailer side. In case this is not done the booking will be cancelled when the ticket time limit is reached, but in the meantime all related resources (seats etc) will remain unavailable for other requests. Upon receiving a DELETE /bookings for a given booking, the Retailer should obviously do its own cleaning as well, and if needed pass on the cancel to its sub-providers.

In case of a partial success for booking, the DELETE /bookings can also be used to clean-up the bookings on sub-providers where the pre-booking succeeded and who support the OSDM protocol.

Regardless of whether the cancel occurred through an explicit DELETE /bookings or expiry of the ticket-time-limit, the booking state will then change to CANCELLED for a short “grace” period, before being completely cleaned-up (offer parts are well cleaned-up immediately). This grace period aims at ensuring that any ongoing operation with the booking is given sufficient time to get an explicit info on the cancelled status of the booking. The choice of the duration of that grace period is left to the implementor.

Error handling

  • the booking is already confirmed
  • the booking is already cancelled
  • unknown error on the server side

Payment information and Payment Vouchers

OSDM does not currently handle the payment process directly, which means that payment from the customer has to be taken by the distributor outside of this API.

It is necessary for the distributor or fare provider to know about certain aspects of the payment, e.g. the method of payment (e.g. Invoice, Cash, Non-Cash methods like Credit/Debit cards or Direct Debit).

It is also necessary to be able to use Payment Vouchers, such as those that are given by distributors or fare providers in response to Passenger Rights Claims, or that are used as means of refund on certain tariffs (e.g. Deutsche Bahn Sparpreis).

As a Payment Voucher is a kind of payment, the handling of these goes together in the API.

The process for a booking which uses one or more Payment Vouchers, and that specifies the means of payment, is as follows:

  1. Create the preliminary booking by using the POST /bookings endpoint
  2. Add any Payment Vouchers by using the PATCH /bookings endpoint and filling out the payments information only for the Payment Vouchers presented
  3. This will return a preliminary booking structure which has the payment information for these vouchers added, including the value of the vouchers. Should the value of the vouchers exceed the value of the booking, an Ancillary Offer will have been added to the booking which represents a new voucher covering the overpayment.
  4. Add the payment information for the balance of the booking (should there be any) in another PATCH /bookings call
  5. The booking is now “balanced”, i.e. the sum of all payments equals the sum of all offers

Confirmation and Fulfillment Processes

Fulfillment Process

Fulfillment Process

The fulfillment is the final step of the booking. In most cases, the booking will be confirmed and fulfilled in one step from the API consumer standpoint:

  • fulfillments elements are created with the appropriate status (see below)
  • the provisional balance becomes confirmed
  • the status of the booking changes to FULFILLED (for most systems) or CONFIRMED (see below)
  • if relevant the documents elements in the fulfillment resources are created and linked

The Distributor will have to

  • confirm or fulfill the bookings towards all his providers
  • retrieve the fulfillment details to populate its own booking responses (and databases, most likely)
  • build the fulfillments
  • update relevant booking properties as described above.

A fare provider will rarely provide real fulfillments as the distributors is responsible to create the fulfillments of the combined offers. However the fare provider has the option to provide fulfillment parts (e.g. visual security elements,..) to be integrated by the distributor in the combined fulfillment.

Fulfillment Process of Multi-Journey Products

Multi-journey products provide the right to travel on multiple journeys. These can be defined in the product as a specific number of travel days or of journeys. In order to use the travel right the fulfillment has to be enhanced with additional information on the intended use. e.g.:

Travel right Required information
Pass for a number of travel days The day of travel is provided and as a result the fulfillment for that selected day becomes fulfilled.
Travel right a number of journeys The day or start time is provided and as result the fulfillment for one journey becomes fulfilled.
Travel right for a number of trips of a limited range The time when the journey starts and the starting place needs to be added
Tickets for a selectable number of zones the selected zones need to be provided

After the booking confirmation the fulfillment will be in state of available in case the fulfillment just requires additional selections to be come fulfilled. To fulfill it the patch endpoint of the API on the fulfillment needs to be used to select more options like travel date or zones. The fulfillment in the state available provides information on the selections to be made.

A fulfillment can be in state on hold if it is not yet available to be fulfilled. This corner case exists tickets providing a limited number of trips per time (e.g. 5 trips per week) and the number has already been used for the current time range.

Fulfillment can be in state expired if they had been available but were not requested in time.

Error handling

In the confirmation and fulfillment process, the following issues can arise:

  • Unknown error on provider side
  • Missing information in the booking
  • No fulfillment type selected
  • Booking already confirmed/fulfilled/cancelled

The Special Case of Partial Success

If a booking is composed of multiple offer parts, some of them potentially coming from sub-providers, it could be that at confirmation (or fulfillment) time, the operation only succeeds for some of the bookings. Unfortunately, a clean roll back to the previous state is not possible here for the succeeded confirmation. The middle Retailer (combining offers of its sub-providers on request of its API consumer) has several options to handle the situation:

In all cases, the middle Retailer obviously has the option of proactively retrying to confirm on OSDM sub-providers where the confirmation failed. But this may keep on failing beyond a reasonable waiting time for the API consumer. A different strategy then needs to be applied:

The first possibility is to completely clean up the booking by:

  • cancelling unconfirmed content
  • refunding confirmed content (with overrule if needed)
  • returning an error message to the API consumer

In this case, the specific error handling remains concealed for the API consumer, who only will be informed of the final result, being the the booking has failed and been completely cancelled.

The second option is to expose the situation to the API Consumer and let it decide of the course to be taken. In this case, the resulting partial booking is returned to the API consumer with an error state

The choice of the strategy to follow here is left to the implementers. However, the implementer who would choose to expose the situation and let the API consumer handle it, also needs to implement the logic described hereunder. This may be slightly more complex than proactively cleaning up the booking in its entirety.

If this strategy is chosen, the partial booking will then be returned with the following specific characteristics:

  • the returned booking has an ERROR status
  • fulfillment is available/fulfilled only for some of the OfferParts
  • the confirmed balance amount only totals offer parts where the confirmation actually succeeded, while the provisional balance amounts to the total of the offer parts where the error occurred (or where the confirmation was never attempted because the error came too soon)

The following options are then available to the API Consumer:

  • Explicitly request a retry on the confirmation, by re-triggering a POST or PATCH / Fulfillment. The Retailer will then re-attempt to confirm the not-yet confirmed content in the booking, while leaving the confirmed unchanged.
  • Either directly, or after a few attempts on re-confirming, the booking needs to be cleaned-up so it can have a consistent status again (meaning the totality of the content is confirmed). To do so:

    • The API consumer must start by cancelling the non-confirmed content. He can do so by sending a PATCH on the booking where the cleanupPartialBooking property set on TRUE. This will result in
      • the cancellation of all non confirmed content,
      • adaptation of the balance values (provisional balance = 0, confirm balance = sum of confirmed products)
      • a reset of the booking status to FULFILLED (or CONFIRMED, depending on the confirmed content fulfillment status)
    • If deemed relevant, the API consumer can even completely remove the booking by refunding the confirmed part, if needed using an overrule code.

Confirm booking without fulfillment

For some providers or products, the booking confirmation and the fulfillment step are distinct steps, while for others/most, booking confirmation and fulfillment are performed together. For products where this is the case, the fulfillment item generated by the POST fulfillment will show several differences from those where the product is confirmed and fulfilled in one step:

  • The most obvious difference is the status, that is set to CONFIRMED instead of FULFILLED
  • No document nor fulfillment item will be provided
  • The fulfillment may not have a controlNumber.

In terms of process, creating this fulfillment at this stage allows an uniform confirmation process (the totality of the booking is confirmed in one step) for bookings that would mix the two kinds of fulfillment processes. The fulfillments can later get PATCHed in order to trigger the actual fulfillment.

When a confirmation request is received by the Retailer, it should first ensure that the operation is indeed supported for all offer parts in the booking (whether the Retailer is hosting those or they are coming from sub-providers). Indeed, OSDM does not support partial confirmation or partial fulfillment.

If this check is successful, then the execution of the confirm can start:

  • All offer parts will be confirmed (locally or via requests to sub-providers), in parallel or sequentially
  • The ticket-time-limit is invalidated (set to 0)
  • The state of the booking is set to CONFIRMED
  • The provisional balance is set to 0
  • The confirmed balance is set to the total amount of the booking
  • Response is sent to the API consumer

As of that point, cancelling the order becomes impossible (except for cleaning up cases, cf below) and any subsequent change should be handled as an after sales operation. Once the booking is confirmed, it becomes also impossible to modify any element in the booking (such as fulfillment type or passenger information)

Interlude: Requested Information per Process Step

These are the required information needed per process step for major parties

Distributor Pre-booking Step Booking Step
Bene   firstName and lastName
DB   For electronic tickets, firstName and lastName, regardless of the number of passengers. In case of some regional train tariffs, however, all names and surnames are needed. For tickets printed on value paper (only few tariffs remain that allow this), no names are needed.
öBB Both firstName and lastName are needed. dateOfBirth date may be needed. Some reduction cards require the number to be provided at pre-booking time, in order to be pre-checked. In other cases, the cards are simply checked on-board phoneNumber or eMail (once per order - as contact information) phoneNumber or eMail (once per order - as contact information)
RENFE Per passenger: firstName, lastName, surname document type and identity document (DNI, NIE or passport). A phoneNumber or eMail. Per passenger: firstName, lastName, surname document type and Identity document. (DNI, NIE or passport) A phoneNumber or eMail.
SBB Per passenger: name and first name and dateOfBirth. Additional sales parameters for some products such as phoneNumberoreMail for reservations.  
SJ Todo  
SNCF dateOfBirth is mandatory, a fake date can be used at offer time, but the real one must be provided at pre-booking time  
Eurostar/Thalys firstName and lastName Thalys loyalty card number

Add parts to a booking

Admissions, reservations and anxillaries might be added to an existing booking. A provider may decide whether he allows this opreation on unconfirmed and/or confirmed bookings.

Adding offers to an existing booking is done via: POST /bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers….

Reservation and Ancillary Booking Parts are added and deleted via:

  • POST /bookings/5678/booked-offers/12345/additional-offers (requesting offers)
  • POST /bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers/{bookedOfferId}/reservations
  • DELETE /bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers/{bookedOfferId}/reservations/{reservationId} As long as the reservation offerPart is not confirmed. If confirmed the refund must be used.
  • POST /bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers/{bookedOfferId}/ancillaries
  • DELETE /bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers/{bookedOfferId}/ancillaries/{ancillaryId} As long as the anxillary offerPart is not confirmed. If confirmed the refund must be used.

Adding parts to a booked offer

  • POST /offers{OfferCollectionRequest}
  • POST /bookings/5678/booked-offers{offers,passengers}
  • DELETE /bookings/{bookingId}/booked-offers/{bookedOfferId}

Adding parts to an existing booking

After Sales Processes


Request a Refund Offer

Request a Refund Offer

On a confirmed booking, and if it is allowed, after sales operations are also possible via the OSDM API. In OSDM, the refunds are taking place based on fulfillment resources. There is no partial refund of one fulfillment possible. This also means that in case of collective ticketing, all passengers will be refunded in one go.

In order to perform a refund, the API consumer first has to create a refundOffer in the booking where the fulfillments to refund are located with a POST refundOffer. If the set of fulfillments provided is a valid set for refund, the operation creates a refundOffer that contains the information that is relevant to the refund operation at the moment the refund offer was created. This includes information such as the amount that will be refunded, any potential refund fee, etc (see the model for more details).

A provider may return multiple refundOffers for the same request, which may differ e.g. in the validity time (validFrom/validUntil attribute pair) or in the reimbursement method (e.g. lower refund fee when a voucher is accepted).

Cancel a Refund Offer

Cancel a Refund Offer

Confirm a Refund Offer

Confirm a Refund Offer

In case of multiple refundOffers for the same set of fulfillments, confirming one of them will delete the other refundOffers for the same set of fulfillments.

Multiple Refund Offers

Once a refundOffer has been successfully requested, no more refundOffers can be requested until the original refundOffer(s) have either been (a) cancelled (b) confirmed or have (c) expired (i.e. the “validUntil” time has passed).

Release a Booking

Request a release Offer

Request a Release Offer

The release of a ticket is an intermediate step towards a refund. The release invalidates the admission and frees resources such as reserved seats. It does not refund the money to the customer as this is done later on at the retailer. This intermediate step allows other parties to initiate the refund process (e.g. one of the involved carriers) and to reuse the resources. The customer benefits as the time for calculating the refund amount wll be the time of the release.

The process of releasing a ticket is similar to the refund process. A release offer is requested and needs to be confirmed to be applied.

Cancel a Release Offer

Cancel a Release Offer

Confirm a Release Offer

Confirm a Release Offer

Partial Refund

Partial refunds of passengers and booking parts included in one fulfllment (Collective ticketing) are possible with version 3.2 onwards. The parts to be refunded need to be specified in the RefundSpecification.

A partial refund will result in new fulfilments after the confirmation of the refund offer and booking.

Cancel Fulfillment

Cancel Fulfillment request

Request a cancelFulfillment Offer

A fulfillment can be cancelled and regenerated. This might be necessary in case of fulfillments linked to physical items (secure paper, phones or cards). The cancelled fulfillment can be recreated later on.

To cancel a fulfillment a cancel fulfillment offer needs to be requested. This offer can be confirmed to delete the fulfillment.

Cancel a CancelFulfillment Offer

Cancel a Cancel a cancelFulfillment Offer

Confirm a CancelFulfillment Offer

Confirm a CancelFulfillment Offer

On Hold Bookings

An unconfirmed booking will expire after the time limit of the booking. An extension of the time limit can be requested as a OnHold-Offer. The offer can be requested and needs to be confirmed to extend the time limit. The OnHold offer might be subject to a fee.

Example End-to-end Interaction

Example End to End Interaction


Requesting an exchange offer

Requesting an exchange offer is almost identical to requesting a standard offer. The only difference in the request is that the fulfillment that the API consumer wants to exchange, and an overrule code if relevant, are also provided.

Replacement of lost tickets and cards

The replacement is used to replace physical cards and tickets. There is no replacement for electronic tickets or anonymous tickets.

Requesting a replacement for a lost ticket

The replacement is requested similar to the request for a non-trip based offer. The search tags must include the key word CARD_LOST or TICKET_LOST. The provider will ask for the required data of the lost card or ticket to be provided with the passengers card data (card number).

The offer for a replacement returned might include a fee. The replacement offer needs to be accepted and booked the same way as a usual offer.


Complaints can be provided on behalf of a passenger. Complaints might concern a delay of a train or a service degradation on the journey. The handling of complaints is subject to the EU PRR and COTIV where minimal compensation amounts and time lines for the decision of a claim are defined. According to PRR the customer can decide whether he wants to be compensated by money or would accept vouchers.

The handling of a claim is an asynchronous process, where the claim is placed and decided by the carriers/fare provides involved later-on.


As the distributor is usually also involved as a carrier and then responsible to keep the legal time lines he can decide to compensate and inform the fare provides/carriers on his decision if the time line would otherwise can not be held.



Customers who have bought a ticket which allows reimbursement and which have not traveled or traveled partially only can claim to be reimbursed. The customer must prove that he has not or only partially used the ticket. A partial use might be a only a part of the trip was traveled or only some of the travelers were traveling or a combination of both.

The non use of a ticket might be proven by documents that were provided to the passenger on a train or at a station. This prove can also be provided in electronic form by a carrier or TCO (UIC IRS 909181-4 / TAP-TSI B.14).

The customer must be able to make the reimbursement claim via a retailer to the distributor which needs to request the reimbursement from the involved fare providers / carriers.

The reimbursement process is very similar to the complaint process where instead of a complaint a reimbursement request is created. If the reimbursement request is valid the special overrule code TICKET_UNUSED can be used in the refund process to refund otherwise non-refundable bookings.